Water and Sanitation, Economic Burden, Inequality, Poverty

Water Risk Perception and the Use of Water Bottles

~Written by Joann Varickanickal (Contact: joann.varickanickal@gmail.com)

It is important to examine how social, organizational and cultural factors of the environment interact to influence health (Laverack, 2014). This has become increasingly evident as water quality and quantity is assessed to determine its impacts on the health of a community. As water is vital to human health, access to clean tap water is important; however, bottled water is often seen as a better alternative to tap water; especially in less developed regions. Many people in low-resources countries, such as Lebanon and Jordan, believe that bottled water is better than their tap water (Massoud, et al., 2013). However, the bottled water is not always effectively monitored for safety, and many are still at risk for various waterborne diseases. Thus, citizens face economic strain to pay for water that is perceived to, but may not be cleaner (Massoud et al., 2013).

Even when bottled water is cleaner than the local tap water, the poor are often unable to afford it, which further increases the gap between the different social classes (Massoud et al., 2013). Citizens should not have to pay for something that is a human right (Parag & Roberts, 2009). Encouraging the use of tap water pushes NGOs and government agencies to improve infrastructure that would make water available to all regardless of social class (Massoud et al., 2013)..

Although tap water in developed regions such as Canada is clean and reliable, bottled water is still popular as it is often purchased for convenience (Mikhailovich & Fitzgerald, 2014). Although the socio-economic implication of using plastic water bottles may not be as severe in such settings, there are still negative environmental consequences (Parag & Roberts, 2009). Manufacturing, packaging, transporting and disposing plastic water bottles is an inefficient use of resources and creates a large amount of waste (Parag & Roberts, 2009). This can have a negative impact on the ecosystem, as this waste can influence plants, animals, minerals and water (Parag & Roberts, 2009). As these systems interact with humans they eventually have a negative impact on the health of a population (Parag & Roberts, 2009). Thus, encouraging the use of re-usable water bottles encourages environmental awareness.

Nevertheless, non-reusable plastic water bottles have been beneficial for emergencies when clean water is not easily available (Canadian Bottled Water Association). With the gradual discontinuation of these bottles, alternative methods need to be determined to ensure that clean water is distributed during emergencies.

Overall, clean water is vital for human health, and easy accessibility is crucial. Thus, clean tap water must be made available and plastic bottles should be phased out in order to allow for greater use of re-usable bottles. This would be a lower burden on the environment, and decrease wealth inequality, consequently, having a positive impact on the health of citizens. 


Laverack, G. (2014). A-Z of health promotion. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Massoud, M. a., Maroun, R., Abdelnabi, H., Jamali, I. I., & El-Fadel, M. (2013). Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 3093–3102. doi:10.1007/s10661-012-2775-x

Mikhailovich, K., & Fitzgerald, R. (2014). Community responses to the removal of bottled water on a university campus. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 15(3), 330–342. doi:10.1108/IJSHE-08-2012-0076

Parag, Y., & Roberts, J. T. (2009). A Battle Against the Bottles: Building, Claiming, and Regaining Tap-Water Trustworthiness. Society & Natural Resources, 22(7), 625–636. doi:10.1080/08941920802017248